Seminole War Chiefs
Chief Micanopy was the chief of the Seminole Nation during the 2nd Seminole War, 1835-1842. His capital village was Cuscowilla, built at the cross of two ancient Indian trails that later became the American settlement of Micanopy, founded in 1821.
Chief Micanopy at first was friendly and helpful to the Americans. As time went on and more of the Seminole lands were settled as farms and settlements, treaties were broken. The Indians were forced against their will to live on a reservation and hostilities began.
After seven bloody years of the 2nd Seminole War, Chief Micanopy and the remnants of his Alachua band were captured and sent to the Oklahoma Territory where he died in January of 1849.
Seminole War Chiefs
Original oil paintings of important Indians were commissioned by the U.S. Government's Bureau of Indian Affairs, and most were done between 1821-1842 by the famous artist Charles Bird King. These irreplaceable portraits were destroyed in the Smithsonian fire of 1865. Lithographs made from the paintings were included in the McKenny and Hall publication The History of the Indian Tribes of North America. From left to right:
YAHA-HAJO (Mad Wolf) was the second principal war chief of the Seminole Nation, and had been among the seven chiefs selected to inspect the western lands reserved for the Seminoles.
OSCEOLA (Asseola, Assyn-ya-hola) was a fearless and cunning leader of the Seminoles who was born in Alabama between 1800 - 1806. His fighting tactics and daring brought many victories to his people over the U.S. Army,
MENAWA (Great Warrior) was a war chief of the Oakfuskee tribe of the Creek Nation. He lived in what is now central Alabama. He worked for the U.S. Army in the war against the Seminoles in Florida.
McINTOSH was born circa 1785 in the Creek Nation in what is now the state of Georgia. His father was Scottish and his mother a Creek. He rose to be chief of the Coweta tribe.
CHITTEE YOHOLO (The Snake that Makes a Noise) was a Seminole Chief born in Florida. During the 1830s he participated in numerous attacks on outposts and settlements as the Seminole War escalated.
TUKO-MALTHIA (known as John Hicks) was chief of the Seminole Indians of Florida from 1824-1833. His portrait was painted in 1826 when he was in Washington on a diplomatic mission.
ITCHO YUSTENNUGGE (Deer Warrior) was a chief of the Seminole Indian Nation. He, along with Chief Micanopy and five other chiefs, went to Washington in 1826 to confer with President Adams.